Agreement To Limit Greenhouse Gas Emissions

To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. Instead, responsibility for reducing emissions from these two sectors is entrusted to their respective UN specialized agencies: IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). In 2016, countries agreed on an aviation agreement based on a compensatory approach, so that international shipping is the only sector not covered by a global agreement. IMO`s latest study on emissions from international shipping has estimated that they could increase by 50-250% by 2050 under current measures. Given that other sectors are ready to be decarbonized, this means that shipping could account for an increasing share of global emissions if the cap is not set. The statistical approach certainly has limitations and the results reported here are very preliminary. They are sensitive to decisions about the data used. Per capita income data may vary depending on the year and the exchange rate used to compare countries. Estimates of CONSTRUCTION emissions may also vary. However, given that the issue of the possible allocation of emission targets appears to be arbitrary in nature, these results indicate a reasonable approach.

The proposal contains the principle of progressivity and avoids the ineman practical proposals of some representatives of some developing countries for rich countries to redistribute some of their wealth to poor countries. The Climate Act foresees a 49% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 from 1990 levels and a 95% reduction by 2050. The national climate agreement provides agreements with sectors on what they will do to help achieve these climate goals. The sectors concerned are: electricity, industry, the ecological environment of construction, transport and agriculture and land use. A 2016 report by the University Maritime Advisory Services (UMAS) examined how much the shipping industry could issue if it remained in line with the Paris targets. It proposed a ceiling of 33,000MtCO2 between 2011 and 2050 for the 2C target, which fell to 18,000MtCO2 for 1.5C. The latter corresponds to about 19 years of current vessel emissions. While IMO adopted two technical energy efficiency measures in 2011 and requires ships to report on their fuel consumption from 2019, no overall caps or reductions in ship emissions have been set.

Discussions on a market-based mechanism also failed in 2013.