Agreements Of International Humanitarian Law

The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, adopted on 14 December 1950, and its Additional Protocol of 1967 constitute the legal framework for the protection of refugees. The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement identify the rights and safeguards that are relevant to the protection of internally displaced persons and provide a framework compatible with international human rights, humanitarian and refugee law. Refugees, displaced persons or returnees often lack traditional protection mechanisms, are naturally mobile and, therefore, particularly vulnerable to the consequences of anti-personnel mines, ERWs and cluster munitions. Beyond the real and immediate risk of damage, the presence of these weapons limits freedom of movement and therefore seriously risks restricting access to basic means of survival such as water and food, arable land and medical care. For refugees who choose to return home, landmines, ERWs and cluster munitions continue to pose serious restrictions on the ability of returnees to recover and sustain their reintegration process. 150 Years of Humanitarian Assistance: Rules to Limit Suffering For more information on international human rights treaties and treaty bodies, visit the website of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights). An important, almost constitutional provision common to the four Geneva Conventions is Article 3 (Common Article 3), which defines the fundamental guarantees for all situations of non-international armed conflict. These include the absolute prohibition of murder for those not involved in hostilities and the prohibition of torture, mutilation, hostage-taking, execution without ordinary trial and all cruel and degrading treatment. In addition, article 3 provides that persons shall be treated humanely and impartially in all circumstances and that the wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

States that have not ratified the Second Additional Protocol include China, Russia, Israel, Mexico, Syria, Pakistan, India and the United States of America. Although these States have not ratified the Protocol, some articles are also considered customary international law, for example article 9, which concerns the protection of medical and religious persons. The First Additional Protocol also expands the category of conflicts that can be considered international and are therefore subject to broader regulation than non-international conflicts. These include those who “struggle against colonial domination and foreign occupation and against racist regimes in the exercise of their self-determination…┬áThe Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and their ancillary provisions are a series of conventions which mainly govern the conduct of hostilities. . . .